Methods: We used a qualitative design, including 4 focus groups and 10 in-depth, 1-on-1 interviews. Primary data were collected from EMS stakeholders in Michigan from June to July 2016. Qualitative data were analyzed using the rapid assessment technique.
Results: Emergent themes included organizational structure, oversight and stakeholder leadership, interorganizational communication and relationships, competition or collaboration among MCA stakeholders, quality improvement practices, resources, and needs specific to rural communities.
Conclusions: EMS is a critical component of disaster response. This study revealed salient themes and modifiers, including facilitators and barriers, of EMS oversight quality. These findings were evaluated in the context of current evidence and informed state policy to improve the quality of EMS oversight and prehospital care for both routine and disaster settings. Some were particular to geographic regions and communities, whereas others were generalizable.
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