Rotavirus infection is a potential trigger for autoimmune diseases, and previous reports note associations between rotavirus vaccination and type 1 diabetes. In this report, we examine the association between rotavirus vaccination and autoimmune diseases associated with type 1 diabetes: celiac disease and autoimmune thyroiditis. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using de-identified claims data (Optum Clinformatics® Data Mart). Eligible infants were born between 2001 and 2018 and continuously enrolled from birth for at least 365 days (n = 2,109,225). Twenty-nine percent (n = 613,295) of infants were born prior to the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in 2006; 32% (n = 684,214) were eligible for the vaccine but were not vaccinated; 9.6% (n = 202,016) received partial vaccination, and 28.9% received full vaccination (n = 609,700). There were 1379 cases of celiac disease and 1000 cases of autoimmune thyroiditis. Children who were born prior to the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in 2006 had lower risk of celiac disease compared to unvaccinated children born after 2006 (hazard ratio [HR] 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.59, 0.85). However, children who were partially vaccinated (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.73, 1.11) or fully vaccinated (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.88, 1.21) had similar risk to eligible, unvaccinated children. Risk of autoimmune thyroiditis was similar by vaccination status. We conclude that rotavirus vaccination is not associated with increased or decreased risk for celiac disease or autoimmune thyroiditis.
Author(s): Catherine Kim, Zhe Yin, Neil Kamdar, Grace J Lee